Central Finger Print Bureau
"FACES CAN LIE BUT FINGER PRINTS NEVER"
ORIGIN OF FINGER PRINT SCIENCE
The idea that fingerprints could
be used as a means of personal identification was first put forward by Sir
William Herschel, District Magistrate of Hooghly District, of Bengal
province in 1858. Later, Dr. Henry Faulds gave the idea of tracing a
criminal from the latent prints found at the scene of crime and came to
the conclusion that no two fingerprints are alike. Based on the idea of
Herschel and Faulds, Sir Francis Galton, the renowned English Scientist
established scientifically the basic principles of uniqueness and
permanency in Finger Prints. It was then that Sir Edward Richard Henry,
the Inspector General of Police, Lower Bengal with the able assistance of
two Indian officers namely, Khan Bahadur Azizul Haque and Rai Bahadur
Hemchandra Bose, developed a system of classification of fingerprints,
thereby discarding the anthropometric system of identification. The first
ever Finger Print Bureau in the world was established at Writer's Building
at Calcutta (now Kolkata) in the year 1897.
ESTABLISHMENT OF CENTRAL FINGER PRINT BUREAU (CFPB)
The Central Finger Print Bureau better known by acronym, CFPB came into being in 1955 in Calcutta (now Kolkata) under the administrative control of the Intelligence Bureau. In 1973 the administrative control was transferred to CBI and it was in July, 1986 that the CFPB was finally placed under the administrative control of the newly formed National Crime Records Bureau and is located at East Block-7, R.K.Puram, New Delhi 110066.
FUNCTIONAL ROLES AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES
AUTOMATED FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
The Indian Version of
Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is called FACTS, which
was co-developed, by NCRB and CMC Ltd., India, The current version of
FACTS is 5.0. The system uses Image Processing and Pattern Recognition
technique to capture, encode, store and match fingerprints, including
comparison of chance prints. It uses pattern class, core and delta
information, minutiae location, direction, neighbouring information, ridge
counts and distances, density, type, print background/foreground
information etc. for matching Finger Prints. Apart from the above details,
FACTS also stores non-fingerprint information or demographic details like
gender, region and conviction details.
At the Central Finger Print Bureau, all the questioned documents involving disputed Finger Prints are examined and opinion given regarding their identity or otherwise. The service is free of charge for all Government agencies and Public Sector Undertakings. In case of private agencies or individuals, the documents should be routed through Govt. agencies.